The Christian origin of Freemasonry By Michael Lawrence

A short paper dispelling the suggestion that our ritual is of Jewish origin.

I was very interested to read the following statement found recently on a Masonic Facebook page to which I subscribe, it was followed by the question, “What is your opinion?”

poster

 

Old Gothic Constitutions 1390 – 1690

From the earliest of recognised English Masonic documents, i.e. the Regius Poem c.1390 and the Matthew Cooke MS, c.1450, which were in fact, Trade Documents written for the control and behaviour of Operative Masons, there is a distinct Christian emphasis. This emphasis is repeated in all the later documents generically called the “Old Gothic Constitutions”, of a similar nature, This pre-reformation Trinitarian influence which is Catholic in its inference, is soundly and securely based on the religion of the realm at that time, which was Christian.

An example being the Invocation or Opening prayer in each document, which always runs along these lines:

“The might of the Father of Heaven, with the wisdom of the glorious Son, through the grace and goodness of the Holy Ghost, that be three persons in one Godhead, be with us at out beginning, and give us grace so to govern us here in our living that we may come to His Bliss that never shall have ending. Amen.”

Certainly, no Jewish influence there.

The following link may be helpful.

http://www.masoniclibrary.org.au/research/list-lectures/86-gothic-constitutions.html

Having made that statement, an important point to make relates to the Edict of Expulsion. In 1290, Edward 1, issued the edict expelling all Jews from the Kingdom of England. The edict remained in force for the rest of the Middle Ages. The edict was not an isolated incident but the result of over 200 years of persecution of the Jews in England. It is generally accepted that the Middle Ages ran for about 1000 years, approximately from the fall of the Western Roman Empire, to the rise of the Ottoman Empire.

Therefore, initially we can dispute the original statement on two counts because:

1) The Jewish people were expelled from England at that time.

2) The Operative Masons were erecting Cathedrals to the Glory of a Christian God.

So we can say that there was no Jewish influence within these documents and as there is no suggestion or even direction by any of the writers, that the contents should remain secret. I therefore propose that there is no hidden Jewish message found in the same.

Early Masonic Exposures, 1696 – 1730

The main foundation of early ritual in England is based on a group of three Scottish documents dated between 1696 and 1714, written out laboriously by hand and possibly used as a guide or aides-memoir. They are:

 1) The Edinburgh Register House MS, 1696 – Found in 1930, in the Old Register House, Edinburgh, among a number of papers transferred there in 1808 and was in no way related to any of the papers or records which it was stored with.

2) The Chetwode Crawley MS, c.1700 – Found in a collection of volumes purchased as a lot, c.1900, from a second-hand book collector.

3) The Kevan MS, c.1714 – Found in 1954, among a collection of old legal documents belonging to a firm of Solicitors practising in Berwickshire.

The problem with these MS might is that without validation, they can only be seen as interesting or curious artefacts of a bygone age. However, by a very rare stroke of luck, an interesting discovery led students to the possibility of validating the previously three mentioned documents.

Haughfoot, was a hamlet near Stow, Galashiels, in the Scottish Lowlands and at the end of the 17th century, it consisted mainly of a staging post for horses and carriages and would have been the most unlikely place for a Lodge to be established as the region consisted mainly of gentry and local land owners, not stone works or masons. But it was in fact, the place where Scotland’s first wholly non-operative Lodge was founded, on 22nd December 1702 and here’s the twist of fate, it would appear that at the commencement of that Lodge, the ceremonies were written in the first several pages of the Lodge minute book to the extent that the last twenty-nine words of the ceremony commenced at the top of a new page and at the completion of the written ritual text we find the following words:

 “The same day”

Indicating that the ritual text was written and completed before the first meeting of the Lodge which was held on the same day.

These four documents agree closely with eleven others, generically known as the “Early Masonic Exposures” and continue the exact same pre-reformation Christian influence.

Dr James Anderson

It was during the Grand Mastership of the Duke of Montagu that when “finding fault with all the copies of the old Gothic Constitutions, order’d Brother James Anderson A.M. to digest the same in a new and better method” (Douglas Knoop and G.P.Jones, The Genesis of Freemasonry, published by Q.C. Correspondence Circle Ltd., 1978 edition, p.160)

One unforeseen problem which also occurred is taken up by Wallace Mcleod in the 1986 Prestonian lecture.

“…At the Annual Festival on 24 June 1718, when the Grand Lodge was one year old, the new Grand Master, George Payne, “desired any brethren to bring to the Grand lodge any old Writings and Records concerning Masons and Masonry in other to shew the Usages of antient Times; And this Year several old copies of the Gothic Constitutions were produced and collated.”

                Even in those early days there were reticent Masons who did not choose to risk disclosure. In his narrative of 1729 Anderson says “This Years, as some private Lodges, several very valuable Manuscripts…concerning the Fraternity, their Lodges, Regulations, Charges, Secrets and Usages…were too hastily burnt by some scrupulous Brothers, that those Papers might not fall into strange hands.”

It is generally agreed however, that of the few London lodges that formed part of George Paynes Grand Lodge at that time, between them they would only have held a small amount of texts or paperwork regarding “the Fraternity, their Lodges, Regulations, Charges, Secrets and Usages”.

How valuable to the Craft from an historic stand point they might have been, we shall never know, but the general consensus is that they were more probably one, or possibly two copies of the Gothic Constitutions that were destroyed which in any case would have been hand written reproductions of existing copies.

The main object of Andersons role was to bring some sort of order to the current manuscripts available to him at that time and in doing so he produced the first Book of Constitution, 1723. Anderson, being a Presbyterian Minister his Constitutions were influenced in that manner.

Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures and the necessity of Grace through faith in Jesus Christ. Its roots lie in the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.

Anderson, refined the basic Christian influence of the existing documents and produced the following statement:

Concerning GOD and RELIGION.

A Mason is obliged by his Tenure, to obey the moral law; and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid ATHEIST, nor an irreligious LIBERTINE. But though in ancient Times Masons were charged in every Country to be of the Religion of that Country or Nation, whatever it was, yet ’tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that Religion in which all Men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to themselves; that is, to be good Men and true, or Men of Honor and Honesty, by whatever Denominations or Persuasions they may be distinguished ; whereby Masonry becomes the Center of Union, and the Means of conciliating true Friendship among Persons that must have remained at a perpetual Distance.

Freemasonry therefore became Deistic, that being the belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe, like that of Natural Religion, which is based on reason rather than divine revelation. It is a system of advocating or emphasizing morality. Morality being one of the founding principles Freemasonry was founded upon.

This now took Freemasonry away from that pre-reformation or Catholic ethos, and all but began the process of de-Christianisation.

Conclusion

The reason why people have give traction to the opening statement,  is because in order to tell the Masonic story and illustrate the message of fidelity, the vehicle chosen was the building of King Solomon’s Temple, but that does not make the story Jewish.

Stories, passwords, quotations and various inferences, were all taken from Christians Bibles, not the Talmud, especially the message of the Third Degree, which has caused some Jewish lodges to make the following change to the ritual:

From – “…lift our eyes to that bright Star, (inferring Jesus. See Revelations 22:16) whose rising brings peace and salvation…”

To – “…and lift our eyes to Him whose divine Words brings Peace and Salvation to the faithful…”

The purpose being the Jewish creed does not recognise the Christian belief that Jesus is their Saviour,

The stories and scriptures of the Old Testament were alogorically used to illuminate salient points of our discipline and no more.

Therefore our Freemasonry is founded on the simple premise, i.e. that we have a belief in a Supreme Being, not what religion or creed we follow and that is why we must be:

“…good Men and true, Men of Honor and Honesty, by whatever Denominations or Persuasions we may be distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the Center of Union, and the Means of conciliating true Friendship among Persons that must have remained at a perpetual Distance.”

Therefore the suggestion that our ritual was influenced by Judism is incorrect, as is the general belief that Freemasonry in general is Christian. Our society in multi-denominational, and so may it remain so.

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Bad Craftsmen always blame their tools! By Mike Lawrence

A defence against those brethren that consider our ritual cumbersome and archaic.

Masonic_books

I don’t know how many times I have heard brethren absolve themselves from poor ritual delivery by claiming that it is archaic, repetitive and boring.  Then come the other excuses that those claimants make which suggest that our new initiates leave because of it.  This is closely followed by the debate that it causes the meetings to go on to long.

Well my friends, I must vehemently contest such complaints with the riposte that so many of our problems lie in the disorganisation of our DC’s, the unnecessary matters emanating from the Secretaries table and the monotone verbiage of some of our W.M.’s.

If you then couple this with the difficulty that many brethren face when trying to repeat verbatim, each ceremonial part and the subsequent poor presentation we have to suffer, it all goes to set us up for immediate failure.

Like so many, I am not adverse to the review or reform of any of our practices, but the claims by some about our ritual are by no means unusual, but neither are they insurmountable.  It fact, if we all took Freemasonry a little more serious, we would solve so many of the problems highlighted.

For example, it is neither rare nor uncommon for mature brethren to nod off during any proceedings, but this is not due to the ritual.  I have witnessed this during church services, theatres, cinemas, seminars, etc.

It is not through boredom, lack of attention, nor medical condition, just that which dictates that elderly people rest more frequent than their younger counterparts.  However, when younger brethren sleep during the ceremony it is generally through inebriation, total lack of interest and little or no understanding of what is going on.

Shutting one’s eyes during a ceremony to concentrate does not constitute sleeping and I know several brethren who, as they progress through the offices of the lodge, use this method to learn the ritual by repeating it in their heads the words along with whatever officer is speaking.

The problem is that very few brethren choose to learn no more about this noble science than that which is contained in their little ritual book.  This means that many brethren hear and repeat words and phrases, and carry out actions that they have no idea where they originated.

Yes! It may be said that much of the ritual which we practice today may be two hundred years old, but ask yourself this – Where did it originate?  What you will find is that so much of it predates not only the 1813 Union, but  also the 1717 formation of Grand Lodge.  In fact, much of it originates from the Old MS Charges of which some dated from c.1390.

If only lodges would use the Lodge of Instruction to do exactly that. Instruct!  Each lodge should be able to provide their candidate with a comprehensive reading list and study programme of instruction and training of which the net result would enliven all that we do.

That is where we let the new initiates down, we send them home that evening with no more than a Book of Constitutions, a copy of the lodge bye-laws and a list of second degree questions of which they have little or no knowledge about.

With regard to the lengthy Installation ceremony, all proceedings can be modified slightly without detracting from the ethos of the event.  All good DC’s with the co-operation of Lodge officers and Past Masters should be able perform a crisp ceremony with good continuity and succinct presentation.  The key lies in the Lodge of Rehearsal.  Such a ceremony warrants several rehearsals to ensure perfection.  Unfortunately, many Past Masters asked to perform certain parts of the ceremony, consider that attendance at rehearsals are beneath them.

While on the subject of ritual delivery, it is facetious to suggest, as many do, that it is no more than an admirable piece of theatre.  If that is the belief, then surely most of us should perhaps conduct ourselves like actors and put more effort into leaning our lines.  It’s a churlish suggestion, although I would propose that a dialogue coach would not go amiss.

When a brother stumbles mid-sentence, we are never short of rude brethren who try to correct him, often times so loud that it causes embarrassment to all. That behaviour also undermines that appointed officer who normally carries out that particular role as discreet as possible and generally by previous arrangement or signal.

As so many brethren are intimidated by the activities of learning and delivering the ritual, we obviously let our brethren down by not providing good teaching, training and learning methods, and this I consider should be another priority.

Minutes of the previous meeting, along with a brief report from the Almoner and Charity Steward could be sent prior to the meeting along with the summons.  This would reduce the business from the secretaries table and other officers who often believe that after two hours of Masonic ceremony, brethren cannot wait to hear from them.  I always get the impression that so many brethren need their ‘five-minutes’ of fame.

It is the inverted snobbery and pomposity of senior brethren, and all lodges have them, that is slowly affecting the membership of the Craft.  Having said that, we must also acknowledge that all age-old institutions are currently being affected by numbers joining, Freemasonry being no exception to this.

The improvement of our ceremonies lies in the hands of our past-Masters, to coach, encourage and train officers and members.  It also rests upon us all to maintain standards of decorum and dignity and to conduct ourselves with solemnity while in open lodge.  Also that we ‘put-in’ 110% in learning any assignment we may be asked to carry out and to earnestly seek help if needs be, otherwise we should gracefully decline.  There is nothing more embarrassing to a candidate than to see a brother struggling to deliver a piece of ill-learnt ritual.  How selfish we can be sometimes.

Having said that, we have all heard well rehearsed ritual. I recall the time when one brother was so enthusiastic with his delivery of the second degree tracing board lecture that those present felt sure he was about to let the Ephramites win!

Joking aside, if ritual needs be read for clearer understanding and accuracy then so be it, but please lets not blame it, alter it or modernise it just because we ourselves cannot deliver it with the respect, the learning and the understanding it demands.

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The Temple and the Masonic Tradition By Mike Lawrence

Freemasons’ meeting places have traditionally been known as Temples, and although this is rather an archaic word, many still argue that its retention in our vocabulary is justified for three reasons. The first being that it is a reasonable name to apply to an institution and a place where the Great Architect of the Universe, is venerated. Secondly, as a continuing reference to King Solomon’ s Temple, the story of which has exercised such a considerable influence on Masonic ritual, symbolism and teaching. Thirdly, the Lodge room itself, is representative, during the ceremonies, of King Solomon’s Temple. The Worshipful Masters Chair affectionately known as the Chair of King Solomon.

However, there are those that consider the very term ‘Temple’, evokes thoughts of Freemasons making daily propitiations to an unseen Deity by way of worship, offerings and sacrifices. Therefore, one can find as many brethren in favour of the term, as against it. But that is a matter for personal choice and not the subject of this paper.

Our subject is the Temple of King Solomon and the Masonic tradition.

king-solomon-temple

It was during the nomadic period of the Israelites, that the focus of their devotions was centered on the tabernacle, a portable tent which was erected and dismantled during their wanderings. When erected, it housed among other things, the Ark of the Covenant which represented the presence of God.

When David finally settled in Jerusalem, he wanted it to become the center of the people’s religious life, so he ordered the Ark to be brought into the city to be given a permanent home in a building, i.e. a temple or house of God.

David’s plans met with opposition from the prophet Nathan who announced that God never needed a temple when the tribes were wandering in the desert and he did not need one now and with regard to the building of a house to God, God in fact would establish a house of David, a dynasty from which the Messiah would come. But Gods refusal was only temporary; it was because David was not a suitable person to build a temple because he was a warrior king with blood on his hands, he was only allowed to choose the site for the building, the honour of building the temple would belong to his son, Solomon.

Just north of Jerusalem, was a higher and taller summit known as Zion which belonged to a Jebusite named Araunah. During a plague which killed seventy thousand people in three days, an angel appeared to David and stood on the threshing floor of Araunah, which was at the summit of the mount. David quickly recognised the fact that as well as using the threshing floors to separate the chaff from the wheat, the Jebusites used their threshing floors for prophetic divination, worship and appeasement of their storm god Baal. David therefore decided he must build an altar there and by paying for the land, the altar, and the oxen to be sacrificed, he would in fact ensure that the sacrifice would be without obligation to anyone but “Yahweh”, his God. From that point on, the site of the Temple was clearly marked out.

This piece of land where the Jebusites made sacrifices to the God Baal, now became the place where the Holy of Holies would be built, that innermost sanctum of the Temple on that great rock, which can still be seen today in the Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount.

Dome on the Rock

Muslims say it was this same spot where Mohammed ascended on his Night Journey to Paradise. Orthodox Jews claim it was where Abraham was commanded to sacrifice his son Isaac. It was also the place also where David ultimately brought the Ark of the Covenant.

Over the next few years, David consolidated his position. Having already combined the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, roughly where Israel stands today, he also subdued the kingdoms of Edom and Moab in the east and Damascus in the north.  Today the areas of western Jordan, southern Lebanon, and central Syria were all once part of David’s empire but are now, countries in their own right.

King Solomon also extended the city of Jerusalem to include the holy mount and began a large and ambitious building program which included a palace complex, for his huge harem of 700 princesses, the 300 concubines, who were gifts from foreign rulers and a grand palace for his Egyptian wife. He built a large armory, a judgement hall and on the ancient threshing floor which once belonged to the old Jebusite, Araunah, he built the Temple.

Building the temple was no mean feat and the Bible tells us that Solomon ordered 30,000 Israelites to be divided into three groups of 10,000 and working in shifts they cut timber in Lebanon for a month, and then worked for two months in Jerusalem, while another 80,000 were sent into the mountains to quarry stone for the foundations as a further 70,000 porters carried the stone to the site.

Building

There were 3,300 supervisors overseeing the building work. The construction which began in the fourth year of Solomon’s reign, took seven years and five months to complete which would have been from about the spring of 958 BC to the autumn of 951 BC. The internal dimensions have been estimated to be no more than, 120ft by 30ft, and possibly having an Oriental appearance, shewing Phoenician or Egyptian influences.

It was constructed on lines which we would find very strange today, as it was not a building where priests and laity met together for worship. On the contrary, the Temple courts were all that the laity would ever see, not even the King himself could advance further than the porch or vestibule.

The Middle Chamber, (or shall we say the nave) contained the Altar of Incense, and was reserved for the offices of the priests, whilst the windowless Sanctum Sanctorum was a place which even the High Priest himself could enter but once a year.

Of all the work carried out in the Temple, nothing was more remarkable than the enormous basin known as the Sea of Bronze and the two huge bronze pillars named Jachin and Boaz. In those days, casting on such a large scale was both difficult and technically advanced and the man sent by King Hiram to carry out the work was described as being “filled with wisdom and understanding” and “a widow’s son”, better known to us in the Masonic setting as Hiram Abiff.

Although we never pretend that our traditional history of the fate of Hiram is anything but allegorical, it is good to be reassured that our story is built around a historical character, and one who furnished an essential link between the Scriptures and the Masonic craft, and was capable of being regarded as the central focus around whom our ceremony of Raising could be constructed.

Ultimately, some 400 years later this wonderful building laid waste and looted by Nebuchadnezzar who made the people captive. It was eventually restored by Zerubbabel but by this time the Ark of the Covenant had disappeared.

After many vicissitudes, this Temple in its turn was finally demolished by Herod who was hated by Jews for his pro-Roman attitude, he sought to regain their favour by rearing an even mightier edifice in Graeco-Roman style. This last Temple had but a short span of existence and in the great Jewish insurrection of AD 70, it was completely destroyed by the Roman armies.

Thus, the only remaining fragment now known to man of these successive buildings is part of the huge stone retaining wall which formerly banked up the Temple platform from the valley on the West, known as the ‘Wailing Wall’.

Wailing Wall

We can speculate as to the origins of that other part of our ceremonial based on the Temple structure, that of the Middle Chamber. It would have been quite reasonable during the period before dedication whilst building operations proceeded, for part of the structure to have been temporarily used as a wages office and this might well have been that portion of the main building just inside the porchway later to be reserved for the offices of the priests. However, this seems doubtful when considering the sheer volume of the workforce, the size of that vestibule, the winding staircase and the Middle Chamber itself.

But regardless of this, it adds to the colorful story of our ritual.

On the matter of the two Great Pillars, archeological research lends itself firmly in support of the view that there were two great free-standing columns, and moreover that our Masonic names are not only correct historically, but more or less correct in their interpretation, for though the writings on the one began with something like ‘God will establish thy throne for ever’, whilst those on the other begun with ‘ In the strength of God shall the King rejoice’.

I think we understand that whilst some of our mental and visionary conceptions of the Temple now appears to be misconceived and based on misunderstandings, at the same time many of our earlier doubts about the validity of Old Testament references have in great measure been resolved, and it is on these evidences that the main substance of our masonic tradition was founded.

While archeological research has improved our historical and theological knowledge and thrown more light on the Jerusalem Temple, nothing has transpired in the least to threaten our confidence in the allegorical and symbolical uses we make of it for our mutual moral benefit, or to make us think of abandoning any element of the progressive science of Freemasonry, to which we as brethren owe so much.

Based on an article by W. Bro.  The   Reverend Canon J. R. Prophet P.D.G.Chap.

 

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Pillars and Columns within Freemasonry. Part Two of Two. By Mike Lawrence

Section six – Architectural Styles of the Pillars

The five orders of Architecture were identified as early as 1562, in a book by Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, who wrote about classical architecture. The book identifies the five orders as Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite with each part subdivided into other parts, all illustrating the styles of the colonnade arcade, arcade with pedestal, individual pedestal, entablatures and capitals.

Joseph Gwilt in The Encyclopaedia of Architecture explains the term ‘order’, thus:

“An Order in architecture is a certain assemblage of parts subject to uniform established proportions, regulated by the office that each part has to perform”

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The origin of the five Orders are thus.

  • The Doric order originated on the mainland and western Greece and is the simplest of the orders.
  • The Ionic order came from eastern Greece and its origins are entwined with the little known, Aeolic order.
  • The Corinthian order is the most ornate of the Greek orders and is characterized by the slender fluted column with ornate capitals decorated with two rows of acanthus leaves and four scrolls.

It was the Romans that adapted all the Greek orders and  developed two other orders which were modifications of the Greek orders, but they were not named or formalised as  Tuscan and Composite,  until the Renaissance period. Therefore, the Tuscan order was a very plain design, with a plain shaft, and a simple capital, base, and frieze and the Composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic with the leaves of the Corinthian order.

Section Seven – The Origins of Pillars

Prior to the discovery of the Arch, it was primitive man that discovered the fundamental building principle of the upright and lintel, that is, the use of two upright posts supporting a beam or lintel. This made it possible to add doorways and windows and is found in early buildings all over the world.

The Egyptians, seeing the principal of the post and lintel, translated it into great columns supporting entablatures. The Greeks following suit used the same to form for their classical colonnades in such buildings like the Parthenon. The Chinese adapted a roof structure of decreasing posts and lintels piled on top of each other to support wide eaves of their roofs The Japanese used post and lintels to form the gateways to their temples.

temple-of-karnak

The Temple at Karnak

Section eight – Ritual Anomalies

a) In the explanation of the Second-Degree Tracing Board we are told the following:

“Those Pillars were further adorned with two spherical balls on which were delineated maps of the celestial and terrestrial globes, pointing out Masonry Universal.”

I have three problems with this statement:

1)  In 1 Kings 7:41 we read that: “The two pillars, and the two bowls of the chapiters that were on the top of the two pillars; and the two networks, to cover the two bowls of the chapiters which were upon the top of the pillars;”. The Volume of Sacred Law explains that the “spherical balls” were in fact “bowls”.

2) The second issue is that there were maps of the celestial and terrestrial globes delineated on those balls. Of course, there were no known such maps when King Solomon’s Temple was build.

3) The third point is that Masonry at that time was not universal and did not exist.

b) When we speak of King Solomon’s Temple in the Second Degree, we refer to a Pillar that is situated on the right. This takes its rise from:

2 Chronicles 3:17 “And he reared up the pillars before the temple, one on the right hand, and the other on the left; and called the name of that on the right hand Jachin, and the name of that on the left Boaz.”

1 Kings 7:21 “And he set up the pillars in the porch of the temple: and he set up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin: and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz.”

Both verses are taken from the King James Version.

The ritual goes on explain that the right-hand Pillar “…was so named after Jachin the Assistant High Priest who officiated at its dedication.” However, the fact remains that it was not named after him and he did not officiate at the dedication of the Temple.

c) From the Explanation of the Second Degree Tracing Board, we are told in relation to those two great pillars that, “They were formed hollow, the better to serve as archives to Masonry, for therein were deposited the constitutional rolls.”

As you know there was no Freemasonry (as the Lecture implies) in those days and certainly no Constitutional Rolls.

Which all goes to show, our Traditional History is not historically accurate, but written to highlight salient points of our discipline.

Section nine – Humour

I recall one evening when a well-established Past Master, was called upon to present a recently Raised Master Mason with his Grand Lodge Certificate.  As you are aware, there is a no formal ceremony for the presentation, however there are guidelines on specific details to be included.

The brother was received enthusiastically and proceeded to display his remarkable knowledge of the origin and design of the certificate. As usual he had us all spellbound and he proceeded to the section that explains the three pillars, he went on: “…the outstanding feature of the design is, as you will notice, three pillars, each with its corresponding base. The one in the centre, like the Worshipful Master’s pillar in the Lodge, is of the Ionic Order adopted by Masons as an emblem of Wisdom and has reference to Solomon, King of Israel, and his wisdom in building, completing and dedicating the Temple at Jerusalem to God’s service.

The pillar on the left, like that of the Senior Warden’s, is of the Doric Order, emblematical of strength, such as the strength of Hiram, King of Tyre in supporting King Solomon with men and material.

The right-hand pillar, like the pillar of the Junior Warden, is of the Corinthian Order, the emblem of beauty…” at that point the brother halted, looked to the South, directed his comments to the Junior Warden and remarked, “…although I don’t know what happened in Brother Jones case” and calmly continued the presentation.

Needless to say, a loud ripple of laughter when thriugh the Lodge.

Section ten – Conclusion

I do not pretend that these two articles are exhaustive, and I have no doubt that with further research one could find lots more information. I also cannot confirm whether there is an inference to the Kabbalah.

The usages, traditions and practices Freemasonry are taken from many cultures, however, from that point on they are referred to in the Masonic sense only, and not used to symbolise the same as their earlier use may have implied. They are employed to accentuate salient points of our discipline and do not refer, imply, or associate themselves with past cultures of civilizations.

This is why many have confused Freemasonry with earlier cultures and  practices, which has tended to give Freemasonry a much earlier origin, that it actually has.

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Pillars and Columns within Freemasonry. Part one of a two part article. By Bro. Michael Lawrence

I found a question on a Masonic site recently in relation to the three pillars that support the Lodge. This was the question:

“Is it true that the three pillars of Freemasonry and the Tree of Life in the Kabbalah are related?”

Followed by this illustration:

blog

There are several types of columns and pillars, referred to in Masonic teaching, here are some of the findings of my research.

Section One – The Pillars of Enoch

In Masonic lore, the outer Pillars of the Temple are often referred to as the “Pillars of Enoch”. Enoch, being aware that Adam predicted “that the world was to be destroyed at one time by the force of fire, and at another time by the violence and quantity of water.” (Flavius Josephus Antiquities, 1.2:3) Therefore fearing the principles of the Liberal Arts and Sciences might be lost, his son Seth caused two pillars to be made, the one of brick, the other of stone, (various other documents refer to other materials being used) they inscribed their discoveries on them both, this was in case the pillar of brick should be destroyed by the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, and exhibit those discoveries to mankind. The story of the Pillars became enshrined in Masonic teachings through the second earliest Masonic MS.

“…knowing of that vengeance, that God would send, whether it should be by fire, or by water, the brethren had it not by a manner of a prophecy that God would send there, therefore they wrote their sciences on the two pillars of stone, and some men say that they wrote in the stones all the seven sciences, but as they had in their minds that a vengeance should come. And so it was that God sent vengeance so that there came such a flood that all the world was drowned, and all men were dead therein, save eight persons…and many years after this flood, as the chronicle telleth, these two pillars were found…” The Matthew Cooke Manuscript c.1450 (Modern Translation)

Section Two – The Pillars at the porch way or entrance to the Temple of King Solomon

In an article entitled, The History of the Two Pillars, W. L. Fawcette says:

“The tradition of the Freemasons in regard to the two pillars, which are a prominent emblem of their Craft, is, that they represent the pillars Jachin and Boaz, which Hiram of Tyre made for Solomon, and set one on either side of the entrance to the Temple, to commemorate the pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night which guided the Israelite’s in their forty years wanderings in the wilderness.”

Our ritual explains in respect of the two Pillars:

“They were set up as a memorial to the children of Israel of that miraculous pillar of fire and cloud which had two wonderful effects. The fire gave light to the Israelite’s during their escape from their Egyptian bondage, and the cloud proved darkness to Pharaoh and his followers when they attempted to overtake them. King Solomon ordered them to be placed at the entrance of the Temple, as the most proper and conspicuous situation for the children of Israel to have the happy deliverance of their forefathers continually before their eyes in going to and returning from Divine worship”.

Whatever significance the Hebrews may have attached to these pillars, there is good reason for believing that they received the material emblem from the Tyrians at the time of the building of the Temple. The Scriptures give a detailed account of the dimensions and designs of the pillars, (2 Kings 7 and 2 Chronicles 3) but are silent as to their significance; and there is nothing in the whole Scriptural account of them to forbid the conclusion that the ideas symbolised by them were as much Tyrian as Jewish.

Tyre had been a rich and prosperous city for over two hundred years, when Solomon undertook the building of the Temple. The Tyrians had been skilled in architecture and other arts to a degree that implied a high state of mental culture, while the Hebrews were yet nomadic tribes living in tents. The tabernacle was only a tent, and in this first Hebrew endeavour to give it a more enduring structure of wood and stone, Solomon naturally appealed to the greater skill of the subjects of the friendly Hiram, King of Tyre.

When the Hebrews began to build the Temple, they ceased their wanderings, they became permanently established, and, as a memorial of this fact, they embodied in the architectural design of the Temple, a symbol which, by the Tyrians and many other nations descended from the ancient Aryan stock, was considered emblematic of a divine leadership that had conducted them to a new and permanent home; this was the true significance of the two pillars.

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Section Three – The symbol of the “broken column”

We learn that under the Hebrews, columns or pillars were used metaphorically to signify Princes or Nobles, as if they were the pillars of a state. In Psalm 6:3 we read, “If the foundations be destroyed what can the righteous do?” meaning in the original, “when the columns are overthrown, that is, when the firm supporters of what is right and good have perished.”

Isaiah 14:10 reads “…her (Egypt’s) columns are broken down, that is, the nobles of her state.”

Thus, in Freemasonry, the broken column, which is not that common in the English Masonic system, is the emblem of the fall of one of the chief supporters of the Craft. The use of the column or pillars as a monument erected over a tomb was a very ancient custom, and was a very significant symbol of the character and spirit of the person interred.

Section Four – The Pillars that support the Lodge

The Lodge is supported by three great pillars, which are called Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty.

Wisdom, illustrated by the Ionic column and found at the Worship Masters station in the East, helps contrive and conduct us in all our undertakings.

Strength, illustrated by the Doric column and found at the Senior Wardens station in the West, helps support us in all our difficulties.

Beauty, illustrated by the Corinthian column and found at the Junior Wardens station in the South, helps adorn the inward man.

Therefore, the Universe is the Temple of the Deity whom we serve; Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty are about His throne as pillars of His works, for His Wisdom is infinite, His Strength omnipotent, and Beauty shines through the whole of the creation in symmetry and order.

The Pillars of the Porch in a Masonic temple

Section Five – The Names of the two great Pillars

You have heard the names of the two great Pillars that stood at the porch way or entrance of King Solomon’s Temple.

2 Chronicles 3:17 “And he reared up the pillars before the temple, one on the right hand, and the other on the left; and called the name of that on the right hand Jachin, and the name of that on the left Boaz.”

1 Kings 7:21 “And he set up the pillars in the porch of the temple: and he set up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin: and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz.”

In Masonic teaching, we learn we learn that the import of both names being “In Strength” and “To Establish” respectively. This conforms to the writings of Flavius Josephus who wrote in the 1st Century A.D. that Boaz means “In Him Strength or In It Strength” and Jachin means “He Will establish or It will establish” (Antiquities of the Jews). Masonic teaching also advises us that when conjoined, the words mean “Stability”, for God said, “In strength I will establish this mine house to stand firm for ever”. However, nowhere in any version of the bible do we read God using these words. The nearest we can get to the phrase is found in 1 Chronicles, 17:12 which says:

“He shall build me an house, and I will stablish his throne for ever.”

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The Altar of Incense by Mike Lawrence

Within the Tabernacle, there were six main objects. The Ark of the Covenant was placed in the Holy of  Holies and shielded by a veil. In the next chamber was the Altar of Incense, the Menorah, the seven branched lamp stand and the Table of Shewbread. The Altar of Burnt Offerings and the Brazen Laver for ritual washing, were situated in the outer courtyard.

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Here we look at the Altar or Golden Altar of Incense. The biblical description can be found in Exodus 30.

1 Moreover, you shall make an altar as a place for burning incense; you shall make it of acacia wood. 

2 Its length shall be a cubit, and its width a cubit, it shall be square, and its height shall be two cubits; its horns shall be of one piece with it. 

3 You shall overlay it with pure gold, its top and its sides all around, and its horns; and you shall make a gold molding all around for it. 

4 You shall make two gold rings for it under its molding; you shall make them on its two side walls—on opposite sides—and they shall be holders for poles with which to carry it. 

5 You shall make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold. 

6 You shall put this altar in front of the veil that is near the ark of the testimony, in front of the mercy seat that is over the ark of the testimony, where I will meet with you. 

7 Aaron shall burn fragrant incense on it; he shall burn it every morning when he trims the lamps. 

8 When Aaron trims the lamps at twilight, he shall burn incense. There shall be perpetual incense before the Lord throughout your generations. 

God commanded that incense be burnt on the golden altar every morning and evening  to be left burning continually throughout the day and night as a pleasing aroma to the Lord. The incense was made of an equal part of four precious spices stacte, onycha, galbanum and frankincense and was considered holy.

Exodus 30

34 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; these sweet spices with pure frankincense: of each shall there be a like weight:”

Golden-Altar-of-Incense (2)

Below is an article by Ex Comp. T M Greensill which gives a more concise explanation and deeper insight into the Altar.

The provenance of the altar of incense used in our present Chapters is undoubted: it is defined in Exodus 30: 1-2:

1) And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon: of shittim wood shalt thou make it.

2) A cubit shall be the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be: and two cubits shall be the height thereof: the horns thereof shall be of the same.

This was the first altar of incense erected by Moses in the wilderness of Sinai – a double cube.

The Bible contains several other references to altars of incense; some two hundred years later, in II Chronicles 26:16, where Uzziah went into the Temple and himself burnt incense upon it:

16) But when he was strong, his heart was lifted up to his destruction: for he transgressed against the LORD his God, and went into the temple of the LORD to burn incense upon the altar of incense.

Such an act was considered unseemly, even for a king, as it was the traditional preserve of the priestly caste to perform this sacred duty. Uzziah’s subsequent leprosy was directly attributed to his act of profanity.

Uzziah’s successor, Ahaz, became a heretic and burnt incense to the Assyrian gods, thus defiling both the altar and the Temple. Such blasphemy was only atoned by his successor, King Hezekiah , cleansing the Temple and causing the altars of incense to be cast into the brook of Kidron.

In ancient times the altar of incense was within the Holy of Holies, the Tabernacle, probably being placed to the west of the Ark of the Covenant. As I am sure you are aware, the incense was symbolic, not only of paying homage to the deity, but also that the rising of the perfume in the air symbolized the passage of the prayers of the faithful, through the ether, even to the very presence of God himself.

The incense itself, being made from the resin exuded from the trunk of the pine and cedar, was believed to save the faithful from corruption and to provide a substitute for burnt offerings; the latter being burnt on altars situated outside the Temple.

The altar of Moses was of shittim wood, nowadays considered to be acacia wood, and completely covered with gold. This altar travelled with the Children of Israel during their wanderings in the desert.

The altar of incense in King Solomon’s Temple was of a heavier wood, cedar, and was also overlaid with gold, but the altar found by the Sojourners was of white marble and described in the Mystical Lecture as, “…in the form of an altar of incense…”

The significant difference in the materials used underlines the great transition from the rigors of the wilderness of Sinai to the opulence of Solomon’s Temple.

The position of the altar in our present chapters is probably not the same as in the Operative and early Speculative Lodges of the 18th century. There are indications that in those days the altar was in the center of the squared pavement and we still have evidence of the use of the Craft squared pavement as it is perpetuated in the present Supreme Grand Chapter certificate. The reason for the change in position may well be associated with the adoption of the Chapter floor cloth which gives a perspective view of the floor as it would have been seen by the Sojourner when looking down into the vault.

The doubled cube of our present altar, whilst of great masonic significance, seems to have had little symbolism in Biblical terms although the Sanctum Sanctorum was specifically built in the form of a cube, the perfect figure in solid geometry, which has many symbolic connotations. In one version of the address for the presentation of the Supreme Grand Chapter certificate we find traces of the inner symbolism of the doubled cube in the following words:

“From earliest times the doubled cube was a venerated symbol representing immensity of space, extending from the base of the earth, represented by the bottom square of the doubled cube, even to the very zenith of the heavens, represented by the top square.”

The symbolism of the doubled cube can be taken a stage further. The bottom cube representing the rough-hewn ashlar of the Entered Apprentice, being in itself symbolic of worldly man, still uncouth in the spiritual ideals of Freemasonry, being engrossed in the material aspects of living and still expecting material benefits from his labours. The upper cube represents the polishing which has been achieved by obedience to the moral code of the Order and its perfect shape to the minimizing of his ego by bending to the will of the Great Architect of the Universe. The beginning of man’s spiritual journey is symbolized in the upper cube when he becomes aware of the first groping’s towards the non-material, represented by the heavens-the unknown.

On the top of the altar found in the vault was a “plate of gold’”. I submit that this phrase was not meant in its present connotation – that of a flat dish, but rather that it was ‘plated’ with gold. It is probable that whilst the previous altars of incense were overlaid with gold to give them the necessary dignity and safety, that the altar found in the vault being of white marble did not need such embellishment, except the top.

The characters and words on the top of the altar are explained in some to the most beautiful phraseology found in Freemasonry and much has been written on their significance. Let me therefore confine myself to the geometrical figures.

Although some of the symbolism of the circle and triangle is found in the Mystical Lecture, I suggest that their meanings go far deeper in ancient symbolism; a field which was undoubtedly known and explored by many of the early Speculative masons who had so much influence on the fashioning of the ceremony so that it was ultimately to blossom into the brilliance which we now know.

The circle symbolizes the ‘flux of creation’, of God manifest in creation and also the eternal movement of a non-static universe. It not only represents eternity but also Cyclic time, the time of the Universe, where time is no longer measured in our mortal, linear time-scale which must necessarily have a beginning and an end. In Cyclic time the end is the beginning and there is timelessness. Our mortal linear time shackles man, who must obey it, yet it is only relative to our mortal lives. Cyclic time as not relative to earth and is self-perpetuating.

To the Chinese, the circle represents the heavens which, in some respects, the ancients considered the unknown, the incomprehensible. In most Eastern religions the circle symbolizes Enlightenment, that ultimate state when mere man appreciates the Unknowable.

The triangle represents the number ‘3’, the mystic number, and its symbolism goes back to the Egyptians and possibly beyond. The Triad to which the Craft mason was introduced through the ‘Three Great Lights’ and many other series of ‘threes’ is, in the Royal Arch, elevated to a far greater height where it becomes the core of the ceremony and ultimately the repository of the second Word. In nearly all of the ancient religions the Triad was revered in some form: as Heaven, Man and Earth; as Osiris, Isis and Horus by the Egyptians and as the Three Aspects of the Deity in many others. The equilateral triangle is the accepted symbol of completion.

Although the combination of the square, circle and triangle is mentioned in the Mystical Lecture there is, of necessity, only a short explanation of what must have been one of the most powerful combinations of symbols known to the ancient world. The important symbolism of the square is not even mentioned. This omission can scarcely be attributed to an aversion by our early companions to the square as the Craft squared pavement was used by them and, in fact, is still found in use in many old chapters. It seems quite possible that the ensigns were set around the four sides of the pavement. Was this omission of an explanation of this powerful combination of symbols caused by some feeling that the inner meaning should be made known only to the elite? Certainly, this combination was known to Elias Ashmole and his friends who were privy to the work of contemporary alchemists.

These early alchemists were not, as popular tradition has it, mere chemists attempting to change base metals into gold; many were erudite men, philosophers and mystics who were trying to find the answer to life’s ‘Great Riddle’. The search for the Philosopher’s Stone, the Rebis – from the Latin res bina, meaning dual or double matter, it is the end product of the alchemical magnum opus or great work, was the quest for regaining the Mystical Centre where the ‘Two would become One’ in the Hermetic Androgyne. To such men the square, circle and triangle was the complete symbol and as such was given by the great 17th century alchemist, Michael Maier, a great friend of Ashmole, who expressed it so cryptically in his Scrutinium Chymicum:

“Make a circle out of a man and a women, From which a quadrangular figure arises with equal sides, Divide from it a triangle, which is in contact with all sides of a round sphere, Then the Stone shall come into existence, If such a thing is not immediately clear to your mind, Then learn that you will understand everything, if you understand the theory of Geometry.”

If we take this combination of the square, circle and triangle and consider them in masonic terms, then, with the exception of the words, they represent the ultimate symbolism of the ceremony and I submit might be expressed thus: The square symbolises Earth, God manifest in creation; its straight lines depicting Man, the only living thing which acts in the Linear, indicating that Man is bound by Linear time. Yet the unique spirituality of Man enables him to look to the Unknown-the Heavens, symbolised by the circle. The circle represents Cyclic time where and ending (death) is a beginning (birth). Beyond the circle, and mystically far beyond it, is the equilateral triangle, the symbol of completion – the completion we all seek, when we become one with the Great All.

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The Additional Degrees By Bernard Jones With additional information supplied by Mike Lawrence

Organised speculative masonry had not long emerged into the dim light of the early eighteenth century and begun to see itself as a system of three Craft degrees before Brethren were tempted to add ceremonies which sought to explain and extend those they already had. The lively, fertile mind of the French mason, who had received speculative masonry from England and was to return it with many elaborations, was soon at work devising rites, which, when introduced to the freemasons of Great Britain (as degrees of allegedly Scottish origin, it is thought) were welcomed in many quarters as amplifications of the ancient ceremonies with which they were now familiar.

It may help to restate very briefly the suggested explanation of how it came about that the earlier and more important of these innovations came to be widely accepted. Some of the innovations were of considerable interest, told an attractive story, exemplified a highly developed symbolism, or reintroduced a definitely Christian motif.

Royal & Seclect

Curiously, they were given the warmest encouragement by those who one might have thought would have been the most obstinate in refusing to have anything to do with them, for whereas the Premier Grand Lodge officially looked askance at this particular kind of innovation and continued to do so all through the eighteenth century, the “Antients”, who derided their opponents as being “Moderns”, were-paradoxically enough – the chief agents in the spread of the invented degrees.

Such authorities as W. J. Songhurst and J. Heron Lepper agree on this point. “I see in every British Knight Templar or Chevalier Rose Croix”, says the second of these writers, “a probable scion of “Antient” craft masonry.”

The additional degrees are often called the “higher degrees”, but the term seems hardly fair to “pure, ancient masonry.” The “highest” degrees must always remain those which authentic masonic history proves to be the oldest. They are the three Craft degrees. Other degrees may be designated by higher numbers, but in no sense other than, in some cases, that of a more highly developed symbolism, can they be said to be higher a statement which does not in any way detract from their value or beauty.

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The Grand Lodges of England and of all English-speaking countries acknowledge the Craft degrees and, to a varying extent, Royal Arch masonry and Mark masonry. All other degrees are “additional” or “side” degrees, and among them the Rose Croix and the Knights Templar occupy honoured and exceptional places.

It would be unfair to conceal that there have been masonic students of great merit who would not agree with this judgment. For example, J. E. S. Tuckett contributed to A.Q.C., vol. xxxii, a learned paper inquiring into the development of the separate exclusive degrees, and in the course of it he expounded the theory that these degrees were founded on freemasonry’s pre-1717 “store of legend, tradition and symbolism of wide extent”, of which from 1717 the Grand Lodge, selecting only a portion of this store, gradually evolved the three Craft degrees and the Royal Arch. His views, highly controversial, received little support.

KTP

Experienced Brethren, whose opinions matter, agree that the better known and more important of the additional degrees possess special and peculiar value, and that in them is much that serves to throw a revealing light upon the symbolic content of the fundamental Craft degrees. But the words of W. J. Hughan in his small but valued work The English Rite should not be forgotten. He says:

“It is much to be regretted that after a lapse of over a hundred and fifty years [he was writing in, say, 1884] the inordinate craving to amplify, distort, and sometimes misrepresent the beautiful ceremonies of the Craft, which were, doubtless, in part adapted and continued from the older organization, has not yet exhausted itself.”

It will be understood that it is no part of the purpose of this chapter to enter into detailed explanation or discussion of the additional degrees. Instead is appended a list (by no means exhaustive) based upon one in C. Walton Rippon’s paper in the Transactions of the Merseyside Association for Masonic Research (vol. viii (1930), with addition information from Mike Lawrence.

A & A Rite

Each Order has its own entry criteria based on one or more of the following: 1) Belief in the Trinity, 2) Subscribing member of other specified Orders, 3) By invitation only.

(Note: The list is as complete as I could prepare at this time and the following Orders are compatible with the United Grand Lodge of England. I would be grateful for any amendments, corrections or additional Orders practised outside the English Constitution under other jurisdictions. Mike Lawrence)

The Holy Royal Arch

The Order of Mark Master Masons

The Ancient and Honourable Fraternity of Royal Ark Mariners

The Order of the Allied Masonic Degrees

  • St Lawrence the Martyr
  • Knight of Constantinople
  • Grand Tilers of King Solomon
  • Red Cross of Babylon
  • Grand High Priest

The Order of the Secret Monitor

  • Secret Monitor
  • Prince
  • Supreme Ruler

The Order of the Scarlet Cord

The Royal and Select Masters

  • Select Master
  • Royal Master
  • Most Excellent Master
  • Super Excellent Master
  • Thrice Illustrious Master Degree (The Order of the Silver Trowel)

The Ancient and Accepted Rite

  • 1o-3o Craft Degrees
  • 4o Secret Master
  • 5o Perfect Master
  • 6o Intimate Secretary
  • 7o Provost and judge
  • 8o Intendant of the Buildings
  • 9o Elect of Nine
  • 10o Elect of Fifteen
  • 11o Sublime Elect
  • 12o Grand Master Architect
  • 13o Royal Arch (of Enoch)
  • 14o Scotch Knight of Perfection
  • 15o Knight of the Sword or of the East
  • 16o Prince of Jerusalem
  • 17o Knight of the East and West
  • 18o Knight of the Pelican and Eagle and Sovereign Prince Rose Croix of H.R.D.M.
  • 19o Grand Pontiff
  • 20o Venerable Grand Master
  • 21o Patriarch Noachite
  • 22o Prince of Libanus
  • 23o Chief of the Tabernacle
  • 24o Prince of the Tabernacle
  • 25o Knight of the Brazen Serpent
  • 26o Prince of Mercy
  • 27o Commander of the Temple
  • 28o Knight of the Sun
  • 29o Knight of St Andrew
  • 30o Grand Elected Knight K.H., Knight of the Black and White Eagle
  • 31o Grand Inspector Inquisitor Commander
  • 32o Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret
  • 33o Sovereign Grand Inspector General

The Masonic and Military Order of the Red Cross of Constantine and the Orders of the Holy Sepulchre and St John the Evangelist

  • Knight of the Red Cross of Constantine
  • Knight of the Holy Sepulchre
  • Knight of St John the Evangelist

The United Religious Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta

  • Knight Templar
  • Knight of St Paul or Mediterranean Pass
  • Knight of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta

The Holy Royal Arch Knight Templar Priests

The Order of the Holy Wisdom

The Royal Order of Scotland

  • The Heredon of Kilwinning
  • Knight of the Rosy Cross

The Rite of Baldwyn of Seven Degrees Time Immemorial at Bristol

  • Craft Degrees
  • Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch
  • Knights of the Nine Elected Masters
  • Scots Knights Grand Architect and Scots Knights of Kilwinning
  • Knights of the East, the Sword and Eagle
  • Knight of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta, and Knights Templar
  • Knights of the Rose Croix of Mount Carmel

The Worshipful Society of Free Masons, Rough Masons, Walkers, Slaters, Paviours, Plaisterer’s and Bricklayers

  • Io Indentured Apprentice
  • IIo Fellow of the Craft
  • IIIo Super-Fellow, Fitter & Marker
  • IVo Super-Fellow, Setter Erector
  • Vo Intendent, Overseer, Superintendent & Warden
  • VIo Passed Master
  • VIIo Passed Grand Master Mason

The Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (S.R.I.A)

  • Io Zelator
  • IIo Theoricus
  • IIIo Practicus
  • IVo Philosophus
  • Vo Adeptus Minor
  • VIo Adeptus Major
  • VIIo Adeptus Exemtus
  • VIIIo Magister
  • IXo Magus

The August Order of Light

  • First Degree
  • Passing Degree
  • Second Degree

The Order of Eri

  • Man-at-Arms
  • Esquire
  • Knight

The Holy Order of Knights Beneficent of the Holy City

  • Scottish Master of St Andrew
  • Perfect Master of St Andrew
  • Squire Novice
  • Knight Beneficent of the Holy City

The Order of Knight Masons

  • Knight of the Sword
  • Knight of the East
  • Knight of the East and West

The Order of Athelstan

The Order of St Thomas of Acon

 

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